As i have pointed out in the past, Autumn colour in the Sierra de Guadarrama depends largely on the humble fern. The oaks of the lower valleys sometimes turn a rusty red, but in low rain years they just go quietly brown. At higher elevations the predominance of the wild pines doesn’t make for much colour..but the ferns that grow between the tall trunks – with sufficient humidity – can offer a considerable spectacle.
And so it is, once more this year. Despite the very dry Summer, the rains of September and October have been enough to bring about a splurge of colour among the pines..the forest floor is tinged with red and gold.
PS: If we move down another stratum, from the pines to the ferns and then from the ferns to the true floor of the forest, we find another often colourful denizen of the sylvan space..which promises to be abundant again this Autumn – fungi!